Chitosan Oligosaccharide

1. Abstract

Chitin and Chitosan are polysaccharide, which are existed in nature and are new functional material, which are observed recently.

Chitin is normally insolubility in solvent and limited in using, so mostly it is used for material of Chitosan. Chitosan is a deacetlyated material of Chitin Which is in nature, specially in crab, shrimp and crustacean and is a natural polysaccharides which are combined with β-1, 4 of Glucosamine.

Though this kind of Chitosan has a superior bioactivity, because it has a low absorption in body and low solubility due to its heavy molecular weight, it is limited in the width of application.

Chitosan Oligosaccharide which is a partially dissociated material of Chitin and Chitosan was solved this kind of problem, with a biological property, can be used for addition and the main constituent material to some food. Also, with an excellent absorption due to its high solubility, it has been found as high functional bioactive material with a wide range of immune enhancement, antitumor effect, antibacterial function, and calcium absorption acceleration effect. So this is a bioactive material, which is concentrated on, much concerns in the field of food and medical.

2. The chemical structure of Chitosan oligosaccharide

Chitosan is a deacetylated thing from the structure of Chitin which is combined with ¶¬-1 and 4 of N-Acetyl Glucosamine. And Chitosan oligosaccharide is a saccharine which is combined with glucosamine hexaose from two to ten with a structure of Chitosan.

3. The properties of Chitosan oligosaccharide

Chitosan oligosaccharide doesn't have the special taste, scent and are water-soluble and pale yellow of no color and can show its function only when it's a high-degree oligosaccharide. We can say that it's a highly purity and quality material about oligosaccharide with having a definite (or fixed) molecular weight.

4. The bioactivity reaction of Chitosan and Chitosan oligosaccharide

- Immunoadjuvant activity- Cholesterol regulation effect
- Function for discharge of radioactive material
- Function for intestinal disorders and digestion promotion
- Antibacterial function- Function for promotion of calcium absorption
- Function for drop of blood pressure
- Function for excretion acceleration of a carcinogen
- Anemia and liver function improvement effects
- Uric acid excretion acceleration effect- Antitumor effect

5. The bioactivity reaction of Chitosan and Chitosan oligosaccharide

°∑Food materials: Because of its high solubility, it is easy to develop to processed food such as health aid food, special nutritional food and various kind of functional drinking product.

°∑Food additive: Because of its high antibiotic activity, it is expected that utilize to enhancement of food preservation.

°∑Medicine and research reagent: Chitosan oligosaccharide has reactive primary amino group, which is possible various chemical modification. It is expected that utilize in part of glycoengineering.

°∑Agricultural material: As seed coating, soil conditioner and foliar spray reduce or remove fungal pathogens severity, protect against microbial infections and soil fungus.

Medical/pharmaceutical/Food part
Function food (control of body function) Anti-tumor, lover-function enhancement